Non invasive Investigations

These are tests that can be performed without needing to insert any catheters or devices into the body. In other words, these tests collect vital information about the heart function from outside the body. Some of the common tests used include:

Electrocardiogram (ECG):

An ECG is a medical test that measures the electrical activity of the heart. It is a non-invasive and painless procedure that is performed by attaching electrodes to the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. The electrodes detect the electrical impulses that are generated by the heart and transmit them to a machine, which records the activity as a series of waves on a graph.

Echocardiogram (ECHO)

An echocardiogram is a medical imaging test that uses high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of the heart and its blood vessels. It is a non-invasive test, which means that no instruments are inserted into the body. While it is not specifically a test for arrhythmia, it is often required to rule out any structural problems with heart.

Stress Test

An exercise stress test, also known as a cardiac stress test or exercise electrocardiogram (ECG), is a diagnostic test that is used to evaluate the performance of the heart during physical activity. The test is typically done on a treadmill or stationary bike, and the patient is asked to gradually increase the intensity of their exercise while their heart rate, blood pressure, and ECG are monitored.

Holter Monitor

A Holter monitor is a small, portable device used to monitor and record a person’s heart activity (ECG) for an extended period of time, typically 24 to 48 hours. It is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that is used to help diagnose heart rhythm abnormalities, such as arrhythmias, or to evaluate the effectiveness of heart medications or treatments.

Cardiac Event Monitor

A cardiac event monitor, also known as a loop recorder, is a small, portable device used to record the electrical activity of the heart (ECG) over an extended period of time, usually from a few days up to a month or more. Unlike a Holter monitor, which records the heart activity continuously, a cardiac event monitor is activated by the patient when they experience symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.

Wearable Cardiac Monitoring Devices

Wearable monitoring devices are electronic devices that are worn on the body and designed to monitor and track various health and fitness metrics, such as heart rate, activity levels, sleep patterns, and more. These devices typically use sensors, accelerometers, and other technologies to collect data about the wearer’s physiology and behaviour

Invasive Investigations

EP Study, EPS

A diagnostic electrophysiology (EP) study is a medical procedure used to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart and diagnose heart rhythm disorders, such as arrhythmias.


An implantable loop recorder (ILR) is a small device that is implanted or injected under the skin of a patient’s chest to monitor their heart rhythm. The device is about the size of 2 matchsticks and is inserted under local anaesthesia using a small incision.

Provocation Tests

Cardiac provocation tests are used when other diagnostic tests, such as electrocardiograms or Holter monitors, have not provided a definitive diagnosis or when more information is needed to determine the appropriate course of treatment for a patient with a cardiac condition.