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Dr Moutaz El Kadri


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Welcome to The

"where we strive to provide you with information and resources on heart rhythm disorders in simple terms. In this day and age, patients want to be more engaged with decisions related to their healthcare. Our goal is to help you understand your condition and empower you to make informed decisions about your health."

Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that can range from harmless to life-threatening. offers information on the different types of arrhythmias, their causes, symptoms, and treatment options. Whether you have been recently diagnosed with an arrhythmia or have been living with one for some time, our website provides information to help you manage your condition.

We understand that living with an abnormal heart rhythm can be emotionally challenging for patients and their families. When patients are diagnosed with an arrhythmia, they are often frightened and anxious about the risks to their life. Fearful patients find it difficult to make rational medical decisions. The vast majority of medical decisions benefit from detailed, balanced, slow-thinking. In fact, one of the ways a heart rhythm doctor (electrophysiologist) can help people is to remove their fear by educating them about their condition. 

In most cases, the condition is benign (safe and mild) and can be treated easily, but even when the condition isn’t benign, excellent therapies delivered by an experienced electrophysiologist often allow you to live your life as normally as possible. Our team works tirelessly to bring you accurate, up-to-date information on everything related to arrhythmias. We cover topics such as lifestyle changes, medication, and surgical procedures such as ablations and pacemakers, that can help you manage your condition and live a healthier life.
While can provide valuable information and resources on various heart rhythm conditions and their management, it is not a replacement for your electrophysiologist. Every individual is different and has unique health needs. Your doctor can evaluate your specific health condition, medical history, and personal circumstances to provide personalized care tailored to your needs. If there is a conflict between this website and the opinion of your doctor, you should follow the advice of your doctor who has more knowledge about your specific condition and is responsible for your care.
Thank you for visiting our website, and we hope that you find the information and resources here to be helpful and informative.

Heart Rhythm Conditions

The normal human heart beats about 100,000 times per day and about 35 million times in a year. During an average lifetime, the human heart will beat more than 2.5 billion times. The heart does so with incredible accuracy and coordination most of the time ensuring optimal heart function.

The normal resting heart rate is not fixed and varies significantly during the day. The rate is constantly modified depending on changing body requirements. For example, the heart rate falls during sleep (sometimes as low as 30 beats per minute in young people) and increases with exercise, anxiety and emotion. The resting heart rate for most people runs normally in the range between 60-80 beats per minute but rates can easily vary between 50 and 100 beats per minute in normal individuals.






Other symptoms

There are different conditions that can cause tachycardia or fast heart rate. Each of these conditions is caused by different mechanisms, has different features and treatments. In this section we will discuss the common conditions that cause tachycardia in clinical practice.

  • Supraventricular Tachycardia

  • Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW)

  • Atrial Fibrillation

  • Atrial Flutter

  • Ectopic Beats

  • Ventricular Tachycardia

Bradycardia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally slow heart rate, typically less than 60 beats per minute. In some cases, bradycardia may be normal, such as during sleep or in highly trained athletes who have developed a lower resting heart rate. However, in many cases, it can indicate an underlying medical problem, such as damage to the heart’s electrical system, hypothyroidism, or medication side effects. Symptoms of bradycardia can include fatigue, dizziness, fainting, and shortness of breath.

Fig 26 Tilt table ai

Vasovagal syncope, also known as neurocardiogenic syncope, is a type of fainting episodes that occurs when there is a sudden drop in heart rate and/or blood pressure, leading to a temporary loss of consciousness. It is caused by a reflex response in the body’s autonomic nervous system, which controls functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing.

During a vasovagal syncope episode, the body overreacts to a trigger such as emotional stress, pain, standing up for a prolonged period, or a sudden change in body position. This leads to a sudden decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, causing reduced blood flow to the brain, which results in a loss of consciousness.

Sudden cardiac death syndrome (SCDS) is a medical condition in which a person’s heart stops beating suddenly and unexpectedly, leading to death within a few minutes. SCDS is usually caused by an abnormal heart rhythm called ventricular fibrillation, which prevents the heart from pumping blood effectively.


Non Invasive Tests

Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Echocardiogram (ECHO)
Stress Test
Holter Monitor

Event Monitor

Wearable Cardiac Monitoring Devices

Invasive Tests

Diagnostic Electrophysiological Study (EP Study, EPS)
Implantable Loop Recorder (ILR)
Provocation Tests


There are various ways that heart rhythm disorders can be treated. In this section we will describe some of these different treatments.
Fig 108


The treatment of arrhythmia with medications involves the use of antiarrhythmic drugs, which work to regulate the electrical activity of the heart and restore a normal heart rhythm. The choice of medication and the treatment plan will depend on the type and severity of the arrhythmia, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history

Fig 105


Catheter ablation is a relatively new medical procedure that was first developed in the 1980s. The procedure was originally used to treat supraventricular tachycardias (SVT) caused by an abnormal extra electrical pathway in the heart. Radiofrequency energy was delivered through a catheter to the area of the heart responsible for the SVT

Fig 106

Implantable Cardiac Devices

Implantable cardiac rhythm devices, also known as cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), are medical devices that are implanted into the body to monitor & regulate the heart's electrical activity

Fig 109

Other Procedures

There are other procedures that electrophysiologists can offer to patients such as pacemaker lead extraction and left atrial appendage closure

Over the last 20 years, Dr Elkadri has taken part in several research projects that help advance the field of cardiology and electrophysiology.